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LESSON 2 SOURCES OF LAW

TERMS AND EXPRESSIONS statutes enacted by legislatures

cases decided by the courts source of law legal system to be patterned after...

to codify laws to reduce laws to statutes statutes must be in keeping with the constitution to overrule a statute to violate constitutional provisions written law unwritten law Also Included under this heading

the law of the land case law to set forth Statutory law

the product of the legislature the product of the courts

to decide a case a lower-court decision to write an opinion to make up the body of case law

common law to establish a precedent to make law

matters under one's jurisdiction

ordinance 20

—законы, принятые законодательными органами -

дела, решенные судами —источник права -

правовая система

—быть сделанным по образцу; быть скопированным с...

—кодифицировать законы -

свести законы в статуты, уставы

—статуты должны быть в соответствии с

конституцией —преодолеть (отменить) статут, закон —нарушать конституционные положения -

писаное право —неписаное право -

.это название охватывает также... В это

понятие также входит... -

закон страны -

прецедентное право

—излагать, объяснять и т. д. —статутное право ~ продукт законодательной власти —продукт деятельности судов —решать судебное дело -

решение нижестоящего суда —выносить письменное решение

—составлять основную часть прецедентного права —общее право —устанавливать прецедент —делать закон

—вопросы, находящиеся в чьей-то юрисдикции

—указ, декрет, постановление, ордонанс to be based on judicial decisions

a federal law conform to

to be in harmony with

to be basic to

to be closely related

the doctrine of separation of

powers the doctrine of judicial review

быть основанным на юридических решениях федеральный закон соотвегсгвов атъ

гармонировать, подходить, быть в гармонии с..., соответствовать, не противоречить быть базовым, основным быть тесно связанным доктрина разделения властей

доктрина судебного надзора, судебного пересмотра INTRODUCTORY EXERCISES Переведите предложения на русский язык;

1 Continental systems are sometimes known as codified legal systems. 2.

The Lawmakers of new nations sometimes wanted to show that the legal rights of their citizens originated in the state, not in local customs, and thus it was the state that was to make law, not the courts. 3.

In order to separate the roles of the legislature and judiciary, it was necessary to make laws that were clear and comprehensive. 4.

Versions of Roman law had long influenced many parts of Europe, Including the case law traditions of Scotland, but had little impact on English law, 5.

French public law has never been codified, and the French courts have produced a great deal of case law in interpreting the codes that became out of date because of social change, 6.

The doctrine of judicial review is the heart of the concept of separation of powers.

Найдите в тексте и переведите слова и словосочетания:

Statutes enacted by legislatures, cases decided by the courts; legal system is pat terned after the English legal system; the continental countries have codified their laws; statutes must be in keeping with the constitutions; the courts can overrule a statute; to violate constitutional provisions; the law of the land; ordinance; written law; a court decides a case; a lower-court decision; the court writes an opinion; make UP the body; the common taw; a case once decided establishes a precedent; similar controversies are later presented; to be based on judicial decisions; laws must con form to; to be in harmony with; to be closely related; the doctrine of separation of Powers, the doctrine of judicial review.

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Переведите письменно:

Sources of Law

The unique characteristic of American law is that a very substantial part of it is not to be found in statutes enacted by legislatures but rather in cases decided by the courts. This concept of decided cases as a source of law comes to the USA from England. As a matter of fact, the US legal system is patterned after the English legal system rather than that of the rest of Europe or any other part of the world. The continental countries have codified their laws — reduced them to statutes — so that the main source of law in those countries is to be found in the statutes rather than in the cases.

In the USA statutes must be in keeping with the constitutions - federal and state - and the courts can overrule a statute that is found to violate constitutional provisions. Statutes and constitutions are classified as "written law". Also included under this heading are treaties that by the federal constitution are also a part of the law of the land. Case law, as opposed to written law, is not set forth formally but is derived from an analysis of each case that uncovers what legal propositions the case stands for. It is nor proper to call this "unwritten" law because it is in fact in writing. However, it must be distinguished from statutory law in that it is not the product of the legislature but is rather the product of the courts. When a court decides a case, particularly upon an appeal from a lower-court decision, the court writes an opinion setting forth among other tilings the reasons for its decision. From these written opinions rules of law can be deduced, and these make up the body of what is called case law or common law. The basic characteristic of the common law is that a case once decided establishes a precedent that will be followed by the courts when similar controversies are later presented.

A third source of law is administrative law. Federal, state, and local administrative agencies make law by promulgating rules and regulations as well as by making decisions concerning matters under their jurisdiction.

In summary, in the USA taw comes from written laws such as constitutions, statutes, ordinances and treaties; from case law, which is based on judicial decisions; and from the rules and decisions of administrative agencies.

The Constitution of the United States and the constitutions of the various states are the fundamental written law in this country. A federal law must not violate the U.S. Constitution. All state laws must conform to or be in harmony with the federal Constitution as well as with the constitution of the state.

There are two very important principles of constitutional law that are basic to the US judicial system. They are closely related to each other and are known as the doctrine of separation of powers and the doctrine of judicial review.

COMMENTARY

Одним из наиболее распространенных приемов, используемых при переводе, является калькирование, которое может осуществляться

22 на уровне фонем, морфем, слов и выражений. Калькированием называется прием использования кальки в переводе.

Калька - слово или выражение, строение которого соответствует строению слова или выражению другого языка, послужившего образцом.

Заголовок текста "Sources of Law" переводится при помощи калькирования: "Источники права" и сам текст насыщен словами и выражениями, которые переводятся при помощи калькирования: cases decided by courts — дела, решенные судами; legal — правовой, to make law — делать закон и др.

Следует помнить, что неправильное калькирование может стать причиной буквального перевода.

Переведите вопросы и ответьте на них:

\. Where is a very substantial part of American law to be found? 2.

Where does the concept of decided cases as a source of law come to the USA from? 3.

What have the continental countries done with their laws? 4.

What are the relations between the statutes and the constitutions in the USA? 5.

What is meant under the heading "written law"? 6.

Is case law written or unwritten? 7.

What is the basic characteristic of the common law? 8.

What makes the third source of American Law? 9.

In summary, what are the main sources of American law? 10,

What are the important principals of constitutional law?

Q Переведите сначала устно,

а затем письменно следующие предложения:

1. После образования Соединенных Штатов в них сохраняли действие английские законы.

2- Важнейшее отличие американской правовой системы от английской - предопределяющее значение конституции в качестве основного источника права. 3

Соотношение законодательных актов, издаваемых Конгрессом США и за конодательными органами штатов, с одной стороны, и норм общего права — с другой, как основных источников права, на протяжении всей истории

не раз подвергались изменениям. 4

Начиная с 1820 года, многие штаты вступили на путь кодификации норм общего права, оставляя, однако, за судами широкие полномочия их толко-

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вания. 5.

Основная тенденция в дальнейшем развитии американского права — воз растание роли американского законодательства при сохранении принци пиального значения решений верховного суда США. 6.

В штате Луизиана сохраняется влияние законодательных норм, следовав ших французскому образцу, однако законодательные акты в сфере торго вого права и гражданского процесса идут в направлении их американиза ции. 7.

Луизина. бывшая испанская и французская колония, была присоединена к США в 1803 году. 8.

Конституция США и конституции штатов представляют собой основное писаное право страны. 9.

Все законы штата должны соответствовать или гармонировать Федераль ной конституции, а также конституции штата.

IJ J Переведите письменно:

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Источник: Алимов В. В.. Юридический перевод: практический курс. Английский язык: Учебное пособие. Изд. 3-е, стереотипное. — М.: Ком Книга. — 160 с.. 2005

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